Unit 2: The parts of a research paper

Parts of a Research Paper:

Here is a comprehensive list of the parts a research publication. Of course, the parts presented here may correspond to a monograph or more complex paper.

Since this semester we will work on a more simple document,  explore the web and come up with the basic parts a paper should have (in your opinion).

Your task for today is to write down a list of those parts and decide the order they should have. You can do this in pairs.

  • Title page
  • Dedication (optional)
  • Preface (optional)
  • Table of Contents (optional in short papers)
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and method
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix (optional)

Title page:

1. Select an informative title
2. Include the following material in the order given:

  • Title of paper
  • Secondary title (optional)
  • Full name of author
  • Submission statement
  • Date submitted.

The Preface:

If the author wishes he may explain his topic choice and share his interest in the field studied

The Table of Contents (optional in short papers):

In a long research paper, a table of contents should go on a separate page titled TABLE OF CONTENTS. It should contain, with the page number:

  • The title of each chapter or division, followed by the title of each important subdivision
  • The appendix, if the paper has it
  • The bibliography

Abstract:

It is a short (up to 200 words) summary of the entire work. It should include:

It is usually written when the rest of the paper is completed. It allows the reader to learn the essentials of the study in a short period of time.
 
Basic rules:

  • economy of words
  • complete sentences
  • a single concise paragraph
  • writing in a past tense
  • corrrect spelling, clear sentences and phrases, proper reporting of quantities
  • stands on its own, doesn’t refer to any other part of the paper
  • focuses on summarizing results

Introduction:

Has three main purposes:

  • provides background and motivation for the topic
  • describes the focus and purpose of the paper
  • gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.

Basic rules:

  • up to two pages (double spaced, typed)
  • usage of a past tense except when referring to established facts
  • one major point in organizing ideas with each paragraph
  • precise statements

Materials and Method:

This section gives the reader enough information to study the subject and to use your materials in his own work if desired. Here you describe what you did, the way you did it, present precise facts, your work is based on.

Basic Do’s and Don’t’s:

  • be as concise as you possibly can
  • use third person passive voice.
  • use complete sentences.
  • avoid informal lists

Results:

This section proves your views with the data. The page length depends on the amount and type of the information to be reported. The purpose of the section is to demonstrate the results of your investigation

Basic rules:

  • use past tense
  • put the results in a logical order
  • refer to each figure as “figure 1,” “figure 2,”; number your tables
  • each figure and table stands on its own
  • do not include raw data or intermediate calculations in your paper
  • do not present the same information more than once

Discussion:

The main purpose of this section is to explain why the results came out as they did, focusing on the principles of the investigation.

Basic Rules:

  • the limit is up to five typed double-spaced pages
  • use past tense referring to work done by specific individuals and present tense referring to generally accepted facts and principles
  • present the data in appropriate depth

Bibliography:

  • list the items in an alphabetical order, by first author
  • don’t include a website as a reference
  • citing an on -line journal, use the journal citation

Appendix (optional):

Sometimes it may serve as a valuable addition to a research paper. It might contain a letter, a map, a table — i. e. materials, that are important to the reader, but they didn’t find their place in the text itself

  • Note that research paper parts are to be found in the text in the same order they were presented here.
  • Please, pay much attention to research paper organization, keeping to the rules studied, and impress your tutor with results of your work.

Taken from: Custom writing

16 responses to “Unit 2: The parts of a research paper

  1. Tatiana Enriquez - Carlos Caguazango

    Parts of a Research Paper.

    1. Introduction: For many students it is the first part of the process, and for other it is the last part of the process which acts as a summary. It states a general presentation of the problem and possible solutions provided by the writer as well. In this section it is presented the purpose of the whole writing, establishing your own position.
    The General Presentation: establishes the benefits of why research and why the problem has not been solved.
    2. Purpose and the Exact Direction of the Paper: The research problem does not have to be a statement, but must at least imply what you are trying to find. It is perfectly acceptable to put the thesis statement either at the beginning or at the end of the introduction, but most writers include it in the last sentences to give the reader a fuller picture.
    3. A Statement of Intent from the Writer: Contains all the readings (articles, research, sources etc.) related to the topic. In this section the authors’ name titles and dates are included. In this section, contains some relevant information learned during your literature review. You must explain why you chose this area of research, attempting to highlight why it is necessary. The second part includes the purpose of the experiment and should also include the research problem so that the introduction flows to the thesis statement. The third part not only gives a brief summary of the parts of the research paper but it also includes a complete version of the discussion.
    4. Methodology: This should be the easiest part of the paper to write.
    The writer explains the methods that will be used to carry out the research. It depends on the exact field and what type of experiment you are working on.
    5. Data analysis: The writer revises all the data gathered after having carried out the research.
    6. Results: This is the most variable part of any research paper. Here, the author presents the results after having done the analysis. For quantitative research, it is a presentation of the numerical results and data. For qualitative research it is supposed to be a broader discussion of trends, without many details.
    7. Discussion: In this section is established why the research is important and how it will contribute to the field. Here, you elaborate upon your findings. Then, you explain what you found by adding your own personal opinion.
    Ideally, you should link the discussion back to the introduction, addressing each initial point individually. Every piece of information should be directly related to the thesis statement. You can give more details in the conclusion and the analysis should be in deep.
    8. Conclusion: The writer restates his or her point of view. it emphasizes the importance of the results in the field, and ties it in with the previous research.
    9. Reference page: In this section are listed all the sources, materials, references used. This section follows a particular format as APA, MLA or other specific format, allowing any interested researcher to follow up on the research.

  2. Araly Muñoz - Diana Colimba

    PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
    In a research paper there are nine important parts that we have to take into account, they are:
    1. TITLE PAGE: in this section you have to write an informative title which briefly define the problem statement; besides, it has your name, institutional information and relevant information.
    2. INTRODUCTION: this section introduces the reader in order to show briefly the research problem, in other words, it highlights the project objective, theoretical hypothesis behind the research and provides a general overview of your goals.
    3. METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS: this section contains all the procedures and material which will be used in the research paper.
    4. RESULTS: you will provide the certain results obtained from the research based on the analysis according to the chosen methodology.
    5. DISCUSSION: it is the most important part of the research paper because here you will have to justify or reject an argument and state the importance of your research.
    6. CONCLUSIONS: in this section provide the most essential ideas in order to show the finding which can benefit the society or a specific field.
    7. CITING OF REFERENCE AND LITERATURE: it deals with the proper credit given to the sources and references. So, it contains the bibliography which was used to.

    http://www.dyslexiaconsultants.com/PartsOfAResearchPaper.html

    http://essaytips.net/2010/06/15/parts-research-paper/

  3. Estefania Aux

    In a research paper is important to take into account the parts that form it. It has at least nine important parts that should be included in the work. There are many other parts, but it all depend on the instructor and if it requires to include these other parts. The most important parts of a research paper are:
    1. TITLE PAGE: In this section it is include the title of the research, the author’s name, institutional information and other aspects that the instructor consider necessary.
    2. INTRODUCTION: In this section the researcher introduces the problem of the research by giving a brief background of the research. The introductions states how and why the researcher came-up with the problem. Also, the possible solutions may be included.
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW: This part contains brief summaries of the readings that the researcher has found. The name of the authors, the titles of their works, and the year of the publications should be included.
    4. METHODOLOGY: The methodology should include the principal methods that the researcher used to perform his or her work. The most typical methodologies are: surveys, comparisons of existing literature, experiments, statistics, mathematical calculations and so on.
    5. DATA ANALYSIS: In this section it is analyzed the information that the researcher have found in the investigation through the different methods the researcher used.
    6. RESULTS: This part contains the actual results of the analysis that the researcher did. Tables, graphs, and charts are common in this part with a short commentary of the researcher in order to link each part of the results.
    7. DISCUSSION: Here it is discussed the results of the research, it implications in other fields, and the improvements that can be made for it future application. The researcher adds his/her own personal interpretations and how the research contributes to the field.
    8. CONCLUSION: It is important to restate the main idea of the research and a brief summary of the other parts that the research paper contains.
    9. REFERENCE LIST: In this section it is include all the sources used in the research. It usually comes in the last page of the research paper. The most common formats are APA, MLA among other specific formats.

    http://essaytips.net/2010/06/15/parts-research-paper/

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html

  4. Yuli Guachavez- Johana Muñoz

    In a research paper, there are some steps to follow. In this text we are going to speak about them regarding their importance and the definitions.
    Title page: we have to know that the first impression rests forever so, we have to be careful with the presentation or the format in which the title page is presented. In this part we place the research topic, the student’s name and the headings. The importance of writing a title page is the identity of our paper. It’s empty when we find an article or a text without a name and we are not saying that the title page is the most important part of a research paper, we are saying that it’s necessary to give a clear idea about the topic which is going to be studied.
    Table of contents: the table of contents is the guide for the researcher and for the reader. It’s easier to find a determined page or topic with a table of contents.
    Abstract: the abstract is another necessary part because it contains the summary of the whole research paper. It must have the objective and the goals of the research paper. And also it must have the key items to give the reader a general knowledge about the topic.
    Introduction: the introduction is a short explanation about the topic of the research paper. It has to list the key points that are going to be developed during the process. It has to establish a thesis statement in order to show that the information is reliable and organized.
    Materials and method: the method is the way of how the process is going to be settled and the materials are the tools of the method because thought these tools the researcher is going to find the results of his/her hypothesis.
    Bibliography: the bibliography is the list of resources that the researcher found during the process of creating a research paper. The researcher must organize the resources regarding the APA style.

    http://www.hqessays.com/blog/research-paper-title-page-3/

    http://www.professays.com/custom-essays-term-papers/parts-of-research-paper/

    http://libguides.sou.edu/content.php?pid=117731&sid=1073175

    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/table-of-contents-examples.html

  5. Paulo Loaiza, Angela Madroñero

    THE PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
    To write a research paper we have to take into consideration the following parts:
    1. Title Page
    2. Introduction
    3. Literature Review
    4. Methodology
    5. Discussion
    6. Conclusion
    7. Reference Page

    1. Title Page

    In this page you have to include the title of your research, your name institutional information and other relevant information prescribed by your instructor.

    2. Introduction

    In this first part of the process, you must to introduce your readers to the problem by providing a brief background of your research, you should then lay out exactly what you are trying to achieve with this particular research project and stating your own position.

    3. Literature Review

    Here you can find the relevant information you choose from previous Works, including short summaries of their writings, taking into account their credibility and relevance for your own work. Also it has to include the names of the authors, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works.

    4. Methodology

    It refers to the different methods you applied to collect the information like: surveys, interviews, and observation or laboratory experiments depending on your field of study

    5. Discussion

    This is where you elaborate upon your findings, and explain what you found, adding your own personal interpretations. Here, you need to present the importance of your study and how it will be able to contribute to the field.

    6. Conclusion

    It may be a paragraph or two emphasizing the importance of the research in the field, and ties it in with the previous research.

    7. Reference Page

    In this section you have to list down the sources from you have obtain the information for your research paper, and you must to do this according to a writing style like APA.

  6. Daniel Felipe Valencia E.-Camilo David Tejada Henriquez.

    Titled page:
    It shows what the research is about. It also contains the name of the researcher, the date of the submission, school’s name and the department of your subject that you want to submit your research.
    Table of contents:
    It is usually used for organizing the parts of the research paper. It includes the number of chapters or descriptions. Sometime it also includes section titles within the chapters as well. It usually appears after the title page.

    Introduction:
    An introduction consists of three main parts:
    1. A general presentation of the research problem.
    2. You should then lay out exactly what you are trying to achieve with this particular research project.
    3. Stating your own position.
    For many researchers the moment when the introduction is done varies, some of them write it down at the beginning and others prefer to do it at the end.
    Method:
    Here is where the methodology and the design are put it into practice. The methodology varies depending upon the topic that the author has chosen.
    In this part the author must be concise about the methodology that she or he is going to apply.
    It should mention the procedures that were applied but not the way how they were applied.

    Results:
    In this page the data which has been gathered is reported, and it defines the length of this section. It must be concise to present the results effectively and in an appropriate way.

    Bibliography:
    There could not be a complete a research paper without including this section. This should be laid out according to current rules in your country. It is usually placed at the final page of the document.

    http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html

    http://thesisworks.com/2011/research-paper-guide/parts-research-paper/

  7. ANDRES SALAZAR- JOHANNA DELGADO

    In our opinion, the model of research paper presented on the blog, should be modified in order for us to develop it during this semester as follows.
    1. Title page:
    – There must be a title related to the general topic we are going work on.
    -We have to include the full author’s name along with the date we finished our research paper.
    2. The Preface:
    In order for us to develop a basic research paper, I do not consider necessary to deeply state our interest on the field studied.
    3. The Table of Contents (optional in short papers):
    I agree with the model of Table of Contents presented in the blog because in a basic research paper we have to include a list of the topics that we are going to develop during the research paper; that is, from the most general to the most specific. In other words, the reader has to have a clear idea in terms of the order of the information that he or she is going to read.
    4. Abstract:
    In order to write a basic Research Paper, the model presented on the blog shows what we really need to take into consideration; that is, we have to write in 200 words a summary where we include the propose of writing the research paper, the content of itself and the results of what we have discovered. Nevertheless, the model of the blog proposes to write all the abstract in past tense, but some authors state that the part of where we write the propose of the research paper could be written in present tense.
    5. Introduction:
    Apart from providing back ground of the topic, describing the focus of the paper and giving an overview of what the research paper contains, it is worth including in the introduction our hypothesis on the problem. Furthermore, we consider that it is not necessary to be limited up to 2 paragraphs in the introduction part.
    6. Materials and Methods:
    In this part you will find the procedure the research process had. The way every stage of the process ran. In this part if the researcher used too many materials s/he has to mention then but not describe them. The researcher has to be very accurate, concise and brief, it is not necessary to be extensive in the description everything happened, no details.
    7. Results:
    When writing a basic research paper, we would include in the part of the results what we have finally found in terms of new information. We have to be sure that the results provide the reader the knowledge he or she was looking for at reading the research paper.
    8. Discussion:
    In this part it is important to include explanations so that the reader can realize what we have finally found at the end of the research paper. It also lets the reader criticize what he or she has read and give his/her own opinion on the subject.
    9. References:
    When writing references, some research papers use the APA style and others use the MLA style, but in our case we should us the APA one which is the one we are asked to follow in order to write a research paper in our university.

    http://researchpapersudenar.wordpress.com/writing-from-research-lester-and-lester/

    http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html

  8. Ximena Delgado

    In my opinion, a research paper needs to contain a title page, table of contents, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and bibliography sections since they are enough in order to provide and show the most relevant information of a paper.

    The title page provides the reader with the title of the research, the researcher’s name and some other relevant information.

    The table of contents presents an overview of the aspects which will be discussed throughout the paper.

    The abstract is a short summary and description of a research. It contains the most essential points.

    The introduction section induces the reader the research problem by providing a brief background of the research. The author explains his/her topic choice, that is, why he/she came up with that problem and the possible solutions which he/she can offer.

    The materials and method section describes what the researcher did and the way he conducted his/her research. It has to present precise and real facts in which the research was based on.

    The results section demonstrates the outcomes of the research. The results are seen from the researcher’s interpretation and his/her data analysis.

    The discussion section helps explain the reasons why the researcher got those results.

    The bibliography section contains all the references from which the researcher got the information and which helped him develop and base the research.

  9. MERCEDES AMELIA SUAREZ

    Research paper components
    Among the components that a research paper includes, we can list some of them below:
    1. Cover page: this section includes at least research title, writers’ name, institutional information and relevant information, dates, etc.
    2. Outline: In this section, the basic research points that are going to be tackled are presented
    3. Introduction: the author defines the directions of the research. Besides, it presents a background, the reasons why and how the writer stated the topic and possible solutions provided by the writer as well. In this section it is presented the purpose of the whole writing. Next the thesis statement is set to guide the readers about the topic.
    4. The body of paper: It includes literature review or summary of different views on the problem and research part itself. It contains all the readings (articles, research, sources etc.) related to the topic. In this section the authors’ name titles and dates are included.
    5. Research part: It is the description of findings and their explanations.
    6. Discussion: In this section it is established why the research is important and how it will contribute to the field.
    7. Conclusion: The writer restates his or her point of view supported by research from other authors’.
    8. Reference page: In this section are listed all the sources, materials, references used. This section follows a particular format. It is followed by appendixes or additional information in the form of tables, charts, graphs, questionnaires, etc.

  10. Laura Estupiñan Hugo Portilla

    In our opinion, we think that the most relevant and basic parts of a research paper are:
    1.The title page this section is where you indicate the title of your research, your name, institutional information.

    2. An abstract is a punctual and clear summary of a research paper that condense the content, taking into account the objectives, its methodology and its findings, conclusions, or intended results
    .
    3. The introduction is a section of the research paper that allows to supervise the research paper, explaining exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve.

    4. Literature Review: In this section appears the useful reading from previous works .it provides brief summaries or descriptions of the works of other authors. It is important include in the literature the names of the authors, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works.

    5. Conclusion it is considered one of the most relevant parts of a research papers because it restates the general thesis , summarizes the main points of evidence ,and gives a sense of completeness.

    6. Bibliography this section is where you list down all the academic materials you have used as sources of information in your research paper. Typical reference formats/styles include but are not limited to APA 5th, Harvard, MLA and Chicago/Turabian.

    http://essaytips.net/2010/06/15/parts-research-paper/

    http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/presentations_abstracts.html#whatis

    http://www.tailoredessays.com/how-write/research-paper/introduction-conclusion.htm

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html#ixzz1oRiQtbgZ

    http://www.essaytown.com/writing/introduction-for-a-research-paper

  11. Diana Gomez - Maria Jose Quintana

    PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
    According to what we found on the internet, we consider it’s important to take into account the following parts when it comes to writing a research paper:
    1. A title and abstract: The title must define in a clear way the research problem and the abstract consists of a short summary of the whole research paper. It must be written in a single paragraph and it should not exceed 200 words in length.

    2. Introduction: It establishes the way of your writing and its goals. It is composed by a general presentation of the problem to be researched, the setting down of an objective and the writer’s position.

    3. Literature review: In this section, the writer presents a brief summary of the information he/ she found in other sources which supports their ideas about the topic. It includes the authors’ names, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works.

    4. Methodology: This part talks about the procedures, tools and formulas that are going to be used during the research paper. It can also include laboratory experiments, statistical or mathematical calculations/computations, and comparison of existing literature.

    5. Data analysis: It states the revision and analysis of the gathered information. This section can be divided in the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    6. Results: The writer presents general results that he/she got from the ideas and perspectives acquired through his / her inquisitive work.

    7. Discussion: In this section, the researcher explains his/her findings along with her/his points of view. It makes the reader know the importance of the investigation in future projects.

    8. Conclusion: In order to present the analysis of the relevant information and the literature review, the writer draws his/ her conclusions and restates the thesis statement according to the methodology, data analysis and results presented before.

    9. Reference page: In this section, the writer makes a list in which mentions all the academic sources used in the research paper.

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html

    http://essaytips.net/2010/06/15/parts-research-paper/

    http://www.dyslexiaconsultants.com/PartsOfAResearchPaper.html

  12. claudia chaucanes and andrea benavides

    1TITLE PAGE: in this part include the title of the research, the author’s name, institutional information and other aspects that the instructor consider necessary.

    2 Introduction: The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. Three phases of an introduction can be identified

    3. LITERATURE REVIEW: This section is where you will be providing all the relevant readings from previous works. Provide brief summaries or descriptions of the works of other authors. Make sure that your research materials are from credible sources such as academic books and peer-reviewed journals. Also, make sure that your reading materials are directly relevant to the topic of your research paper. The literature review typically includes the names of the authors, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works.
    4. METHODOLOGY: This section is where you will be providing the methods that you will be using in your research. Typical methodologies include laboratory experiments, statistical or mathematical calculations/computations, and comparison of existing literature.

    5 DATA ANALYSIS: This section is where you will be analyzing the data that you have obtained from the methodological operation that you have chosen. Depending on the type of your research paper, data analysis instruments and operations may vary. Common data analysis methods include but are not limited to SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) which is a form of a qualitative data analysis
    6 RESULTS: This section is where you will be presenting the actual results of the analysis that you have made based on your chosen methodology.
    7 DISCUSSION: This is where you will be discussing more of the results of your research, its implications on other fields as well as the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. This is also the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it will be able to contribute to the field.
    8 CONCLUSION: Provide the conclusion to your research paper. While it is important to restate your general thesis in this section, it is also important to include a brief restatement of the other parts of the research paper such as the methodology, data analysis and results.
    andrea benavides and claudia chaucanes

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html

    http://thesisworks.com/2011/research-paper-guide/parts-research-paper/

  13. andrea benavides

    1TITLE PAGE: in this part include the title of the research, the author’s name, institutional information and other aspects that the instructor consider necessary.

    2 Introduction: The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. Three phases of an introduction can be identified

    3. LITERATURE REVIEW: This section is where you will be providing all the relevant readings from previous works. Provide brief summaries or descriptions of the works of other authors. Make sure that your research materials are from credible sources such as academic books and peer-reviewed journals. Also, make sure that your reading materials are directly relevant to the topic of your research paper. The literature review typically includes the names of the authors, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works.
    4. METHODOLOGY: This section is where you will be providing the methods that you will be using in your research. Typical methodologies include laboratory experiments, statistical or mathematical calculations/computations, and comparison of existing literature.

    5 DATA ANALYSIS: This section is where you will be analyzing the data that you have obtained from the methodological operation that you have chosen. Depending on the type of your research paper, data analysis instruments and operations may vary. Common data analysis methods include but are not limited to SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) which is a form of a qualitative data analysis
    6 RESULTS: This section is where you will be presenting the actual results of the analysis that you have made based on your chosen methodology.
    7 DISCUSSION: This is where you will be discussing more of the results of your research, its implications on other fields as well as the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. This is also the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it will be able to contribute to the field.
    8 CONCLUSION: Provide the conclusion to your research paper. While it is important to restate your general thesis in this section, it is also important to include a brief restatement of the other parts of the research paper such as the methodology, data analysis and results.

    andrea benavides and claudia chaucanes

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html

    http://thesisworks.com/2011/research-paper-guide/parts-research-paper/

  14. Leidy Escobar

    THE PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
    To write a research paper we have to take into consideration the following parts:
    1. Title Page
    2. Abstract
    3. Introduction
    4. Literature Review
    5. Suggestions
    6. Conclusion
    7. References Page
    8. Appendix

    1. APA Title Page: It shows the title of the research paper, it also contains the full name of the author, institution, or affiliation, and the date of submission.

    2. Abstract: It summarizes your research paper. It allows the reader to evaluate the content of your paper and judge whether it is relevant to their research or not. You must remain within 200 words limit.

    3. Introduction: it gives an overall review of the paper, providing a more in-depth analysis. It starts with a broad description, and then narrows down to the particular area of focus and topics of interest. For many students, writing the introduction is the first part of the writing process, where they determine the direction of their paper. Others students prefer to write the introduction last, allowing it to serve as quick summary of the paper; both methods are equally good. As long as you have planned a good outline and structure for your research paper. In the introduction, you are attempting to inform the reader about the rationale behind your work, justifying why it is relevant. The introduction does not have a strict world limit, although it should be as concise as possible.

    4. Literature Review: In this section, the writer provides all the relevant readings from previous works, brief summaries of the information of the works of other authors, paraphrasing, and criticism of opinion. It is important to include in the literature the names of the authors, the titles of their works and the year of the publication.

    5. Suggestions: Recommendations or ideas that you give about how other should apply your research paper.

    6. Conclusions: Writing the conclusion is the final part of the research paper, drawing everything together and tying it with your initial research. At the beginning of the research paper, you looked at all the previous research works and boiled it down into a research question. In the conclusion, you assess the answer to this question and discuss its relevance to the existing knowledge in the field.

    7. Bibliography page: For any research paper, writing a bibliography is essential, preventing any accusations of plagiarism, and giving fair credit to the work of previous authors in the field. Writing a reference-list will allow the reader to check the original sources if they require further details. It always comes at the end of the paper, and it must include all of the direct sources that you referred to in the body of the paper.

    8. Appendix: It is a good place to put maps, extra photographs, and diagrams of the apparatus used, if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the study more, remembering that the body of the paper should be understandable without them.

  15. Leonardo Micanquer

    Title page
    It includes:
    Title of the paper, it must reflect the central topic and the variables of your research.
    The name of the researcher
    The date of submission
    School and also the department of the subject or field knowledge the research is about.

    Abstract
    It presents a short discussion and description of the research. It should include the general objective, the importance of the topic, some data analysis and the conclusions of the research.

    Introduction
    It gives a contextualization or a background of the research problem, why it is important and why the reader has to pay attention to it. Also it describes briefly what sections and the content of each section of the paper and synthesizes the objective and some possible solutions to the problem.
    Literature review
    It contains summaries and conclusions of researches that authorities of the field have done about the topic of interest, it serves to support the ideas you present to the readers and the reasons what you consider important the research topic. In this section, you have to be careful not to commit plagiarism.
    Methodology
    This section describes the procedures and techniques used to collect the data, analyze and verify it. What you did, how you did it and what you used to did it.
    Results
    This section presents the proofs of the research process. What it came up at the end of the process. The proofs will depend on the type o research (qualitative or quantitative)
    Discussion
    In this section the results are explained. It is stated what it was learnt or proved.
    References
    In this sections it is provided a list of the all academic materials was used, the sources, the authors and the place where these material can be found.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s